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Do cheaters have an evolutionary advantage?

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first_imgLinkedIn Pinterest Some amoebae ultimately become cells in the stalk of the fruiting body and die, while others rise to the top, and form spores that pass their genes to the next generation. When unrelated amoebae gather to form a fruiting body, some strains may overcontribute to the spores and undercontribute to the stalk. These are the cheaters.Scientists knew that cheaters could be found in wild populations of Dicty, but whether this was a successful strategy in the game of natural selection was anyone’s guess.Now the ease and low cost of genome sequencing has finally made it possible to answer the question. “By looking at the genetic variation in or near Dicty’s ‘social genes,’ scientists are able to tell whether variants of these genes that made cooperators into cheaters had swept through populations, fought to maintain a toehold, or been given a pass because they didn’t affect survival,” said Elizabeth Ostrowski, PhD, assistant professor of biology and biochemistry at the University of Houston.“The genome signatures we found suggest neither the cheating nor the cooperating variants of the social genes was able to take over the populations and that the variants had battled to a standstill,” said David C. Queller, PhD, the Spencer T. Olin Professor of Biology in Arts & Sciences at Washington University in St. Louis.“A stalemate is maintained only in a complex environment where it’s unclear which strategy will win,” said Joan Strassmann, PhD, the Charles Rebstock Professor of Biology in Arts & Sciences. “If the rules never change, the gene that is best on average will eventually drive out the other variant.”The findings suggest the benefits of cheating change with its frequency, or prevalence, in a population. Cheaters may succeed, for example, only when they are rare, and fail when they become so numerous they push out cooperators or put pressure on cooperators to find ways to defeat cheating.Many social behaviors are like this, Queller said; the success of one individual’s strategy depends on how many others are also employing it.The study, described in the June 4 issue of Current Biology, is the work of a collaboration of scientists from Washington University, the University of Houston and the Baylor College of Medicine. Ostrowski is the first author on the paper and Queller and Strassman are senior authors.An arms race or trench warfare?“For this project, we sequenced 20 Dicty strains we had isolated from the soil in the eastern U.S. We then looked for variation in 140 genes implicated in social behavior, comparing them to the rest of the genome to see if the social genes were evolving differently,” Strassmann said.“We originally got enough funding to sequence two genomes,” she said. “But by the time we had cleaned the clones up, the price of sequencing had dropped so much we were able to sequence many more.”The 140 genes, Queller said, were ones that had been located during an earlier genome-wide screen for genes, that when they are disabled, turn a cooperating amoeba into a cheater.The scientists framed their study by defining several hypothetical scenarios for the evolutionary dynamics of cheating behaviors in Dicty (see illustration), each of which makes different, testable predictions about DNA diversity in and near the social genes.“We thought we were going to see the signature of an arms race in the DNA,” Queller said, “because the cheater/cooperator conflict seems analogous with other kinds of conflict, such as host/pathogen conflict, that produce escalating battles between adaptations.”An arms race, technically a series of “selective sweeps,” would have shown up as a lack of variation in the DNA in or near the social genes, because a highly advantageous gene “sweeps” through a population. “What we found was kind of the opposite,” Queller said. “Instead of diminished variation, there was more variation in the social genes than average, which is consistent with a prolonged stalemate at these locations.”The scientists found more evidence for a stalemate when they compared strains from two different populations, one in Texas and the other in Virginia, Queller said.In an arms race, the Dicty at these geographically separated locations would probably have undergone different selective sweeps, which in turn would make the two populations less similar. In fact, however, the populations differed less at the social gene locations than at other genes, suggesting that some selective force was working to maintain the same variants of the social genes in both the Texas and Virginia populations.Both the increased genetic diversity near the social genes and the failure of separated populations to drift apart at those genetic locations support the stalemate scenario.“We failed to observe the genetic signatures of a simple arms race: a reduction in genetic diversity and long-term divergence of populations,”Ostrowski said. “Rather, the genetic signatures suggests there is trench warfare among variants of the social genes, and neither the cheaters or the cooperators are able to gain the upper hand.”But why is that? Ostrowski said. “What limits the spread of cheaters? Are they suppressed by better cheaters or by a resistant population? And conversely what limits cooperators? Why don’t the cooperators completely shut down the cheaters?”It’s hard to imagine questions of more universal interest. Share on Facebook Sharecenter_img Email Share on Twitter Anyone who has crawled along in the left lane while other drivers raced up the right lane, which was clearly marked “lane ends, merge left,” has experienced social cheating, a maddening and fascinating behavior common to many species.Although it won’t help with road rage, scientists are beginning to understand cheating in simpler “model systems,” such as the social amoeba, Dictyostelium discoideum.At one stage in their life cycle thousands of the normally solitary Dicty converge to form a multicellular slug and then a fruiting body, consisting of a stalk holding aloft a ball of spores. It is during this cooperative act that the opportunity for cheating arises.last_img

Lund International Names New VP of Sales and Marketing

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first_imgWith more than 20 years of experience across multiple industries and functional areas, deMoulpied has particular expertise in organizations with complex technical products. Combined, his prior positions have required a spectrum of skills in corporate strategy, operations improvement, product quality, and revenue cycle management. He has an impressive history of utilizing data driven problem solving (Lean Six Sigma) and project management (PMP and CSM) to achieve strategic goals surrounding customer satisfaction, operational efficiency and improved profit.  LSI President Brett Tennar says, “Steve’s success in developing operational strategies that improves the bottom line, builds teamwork, reduces waste and ensures quality product development and distribution checks many of the boxes of what we were looking for in a COO. This, coupled with his career in the Air Force working with highly technical systems and his in-depth understanding of Lean Six Sigma and Business Process Management sealed our offer. As our tagline states, our products are Powered by Science. This data driven approach is one reason why our company has grown exponentially as we employ the most advanced technology to product development. I am confident that Steve is the right person to drive operational strategy for our diverse and growing brands.” Advertisement SUWANEE, Ga. — Lund International has named Ken Robinson as vice president of sales and marketing. As such, Robinson will be responsible for all sales channels, marketing and customer service.AdvertisementClick Here to Read MoreAdvertisement Robinson comes to Lund from General Motors, where he last held the position of general manager southeast region, service, accessories and parts. Throughout his career Robinson has held management positions in international and domestic sales, product management and development, advertising and marketing.,Lubrication Specialties Inc. (LSI), manufacturer of Hot Shot’s Secret brand of performance additives and oils, recently announced the expansion of senior leadership. Steve deMoulpied joins LSI as the company’s chief operating officer (COO). AdvertisementClick Here to Read MoreAdvertisement DeMoulpied has a Bachelor of Science degree in Engineering Management from the United States Air Force Academy and a Master of Business Administration degree from the University of Dayton in Marketing and International Business. He served six years with the USAF overseeing the development of technology used on fighter aircraft and the E-3 Surveillance aircraft, finishing his career honorably as Captain. DeMoulpied comes to LSI from the Private Client Services practice of Ernst & Young where he managed strategy & operations improvement engagements for privately held client businesses. Some of his prior roles include VP of strategic development, director of strategic initiatives, and Lean Six Sigma Master Black Belt at OptumHealth, UnitedHealth Group’s health services business, as well as Lean Six Sigma Black Belt at General Electric, where he applied operations improvement principles to customer service, supply chain and product development. A successful entrepreneur, deMoulpied is also the founder of PrestoFresh, a Cleveland-based e-commerce food/grocery business. last_img

SRA reports rise in allegations of abandoned firms

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first_imgThe Solicitors Regulation Authority has seen a ‘marked increase’ in reports that solicitors’ practices have been abandoned, with abandonment reports at their highest level since 2008. The regulator’s latest figures show that its risk unit received 94 reports that a law firm had been abandoned from legal complaints bodies, members of the public and other sources in the three months to 31 March this year. This represents a 45% increase on the number received in the same quarter last year. The figures also show a rise in the number of ‘allegations’ its risk unit received relating to bankruptcy and dishonoured office account cheques at law firms, compared to the same time last year. However, there was a fall in the number of reports made to the SRA relating to the legal and administrative competence of practices. Figures for interventions show that the SRA intervened in significantly fewer firms in the 12 months to 31 March 2011; just 59 firms, compared to 92 in the previous 12 months. However, sole practitioners still comprised around three-quarters of the firms intervened in, and firms with two to five partners accounted for 24%. Although the overall number of firms intervened in fell, the number of interventions on grounds of bankruptcy rose slightly, to nine firms in the 12 months to 31 March 2010, compared to seven in the previous 12 months. In relation to disciplinary proceedings against solicitors, there was a 16% fall in the overall number of orders made by the Solicitors Disciplinary Tribunal in the past 12 months. However, while there was a 5% drop in the number of solicitors struck off the roll (86), and a 32% decrease in the number fined (122), the number of solicitors who were suspended increased by 15%, to 55.last_img

Local slate for local houses

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first_imgGet your free guest access  SIGN UP TODAY Subscribe now for unlimited access Stay at the forefront of thought leadership with news and analysis from award-winning journalists. Enjoy company features, CEO interviews, architectural reviews, technical project know-how and the latest innovations.Limited access to building.co.ukBreaking industry news as it happensBreaking, daily and weekly e-newsletters To continue enjoying Building.co.uk, sign up for free guest accessExisting subscriber? LOGIN Subscribe to Building today and you will benefit from:Unlimited access to all stories including expert analysis and comment from industry leadersOur league tables, cost models and economics dataOur online archive of over 10,000 articlesBuilding magazine digital editionsBuilding magazine print editionsPrinted/digital supplementsSubscribe now for unlimited access.View our subscription options and join our communitylast_img

Labour’s justice plan to beat Covid-19

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first_imgLabour’s front bench justice heads today outline a seven-point plan to adapt to coronavirus and ‘ensure the system is never left so vulnerable again’.Writing in the Gazette, shadow justice secretary David Lammy MP and shadow attorney general Lord Falconer outline their immediate priorities at a time when the justice system is ‘incapacitated’. Some of their adaptations ought to be temporary and some permanent, they propose.Labour’s action plan includes scrapping the Legal Aid, Sentencing and Punishment of Offenders Act 2012, which ‘decimated the availability of legal advice and representation for those who cannot aff ord it’.  Early legal advice should be available during the emergency and afterwards, they add.Other demands include ensuring the legal profession itself survives, recognising that ‘many solicitors and barristers won’t survive a further 18 months like the last’.Justice should be done by remote hearings ‘where possible’, while recognising that some hearings or parts of them should be conducted face to face. Online streaming of cases, meanwhile, ‘is a reform we should keep’, they add.last_img

VANDALS GO ON DUMFRIES RAMPAGE

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first_imgAddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to FacebookFacebookFacebookShare to TwitterTwitterTwitterShare to LinkedInLinkedInLinkedInPolice Scotland is appealing to the public to help catch a group of youths who are responsible for yet another spate of vandalism in the town over the weekend. On Friday and Saturday evenings cars and property were damaged in the town as follows:-Friday evening – between 1500 hours and 2130 hours a beige Vauxhall Vectra car had its front and rear windows smashed while parked in Craigs Road.Friday/Saturday – truck parked in Shortridges in Irongray Road had its windscreen smashed.Saturday – between 1930 hours and 2300 hours a Suzuki Splash car had a mirror smashed while parked at St Teresa’s Church, Glasgow Road.Saturday/Sunday – black Fiat Panda parked in King Street had a window and a mirror smashed.Friday/Saturday – blue Renault Clio parked in Waverley Road had mirror smashed.Friday evening – blue Fiat Panda parked in Waverley Road had mirror smashed.Friday evening – three houses in Maplebank Loaning had garden gates smashed.Friday/Saturday – blue Ford Focus parked in Merrick Place had both mirrors smashed.Chief Inspector Stephen Stiff at Dumfries said “this is again another extensive catalogue of what can only be described as wanton vandalism over the weekend. The cost of damage will easily be over £1000 and again will put the victims to a great deal of inconvenience as vehicles often require to be repaired before getting back on the road. This does appear to be yet another spate, of which there have been many this year already in Dumfries and the costs must now be running into many thousands of pounds. At this stage we have reported a number of young people for some of these crimes, and will continue to pursue those responsible with a view to taking them through the criminal justice system, regardless of age, and actions will also be considered through Antisocial Behaviour legislation, and consideration , with partner agencies, in reviewing tenancy arrangements due to the disproportionate impact that these crime are having on the local community. However, we do need the help of the public to help identify all those responsible for what is becoming a very costly series of crimes in Dumfries. Anyone who may have any information which might help us trace and catch those responsible is asked to call us here at Dumfries on the 101 number, or if they want to remain anonymous on the Crimestoppers number – 0800 555 111.last_img

Calypsonians Called to be Part of World Earth Day

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first_img Share Tweet Sharing is caring! 60 Views   no discussions Sharecenter_img Share LifestyleLocalNews Calypsonians Called to be Part of World Earth Day by: - January 9, 2020 Father Franklin Cuffy,Environmental activists in Dominica, Echo78, are throwing out a challenge to calypsonians and song writers to use their medium to draw attention to climate action in their songs.The hope is that the song will be used as a theme song internationally to call individuals, corporations and nations to do more to preserve the planet.This is in anticipation of Earth Day in April.In an exclusive interview with Dominica Vibes, Father Franklin Cuffy, an environmental activist and partner of Echo78 explained, “We are challenging the calypsonians to see if they can come up with a calypso to win a special award. Any song fitting our expectation has to have the focus of the 50th anniversary of Earth Day.”He also reported that, “the response from the Calypso Association is very interesting, they responded well.” A similar challenge was issued before with a $1,000 prize on a theme of preserving life. This time, Father Cuffy says the prize will be a surprise.Asked to assess climate action in Dominica, he said his expectations are much higher.“I would love to see a lot more happening,” he lamented. “I think as a nation we can do so much more. A simple thing as a huge [event] and the next day the amount of garbage left behind is disheartening; a lot needs to be done.“Every year on April 22, Earth Day marks the anniversary of the birth of the modern environmental movement in 1970.2020 will mark 50 years of Earth Day w and  gave a voice to an emerging public consciousness about the state of the planet.The enormous challenges of acting on climate change have distinguished the issue as the most pressing topic for the 50th anniversary.last_img

Rape suspect falls in Talisay City

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first_imgNo bail bond was recommended for his temporary liberty./PN The suspect was detained in the lockup cell of the Talisay City police station. The 23-year-old Wilmar Doria Pasante was caught around 11:20 a.m. on Wednesday, a police report showed. Pasante’s apprehension was staged on the strength of an arrest warrant issued by Judge Dyna Doll Chiongson-Trocio of the Regional Trial Court Branch 40 in Silay City dated Oct. 9, 2019. BACOLOD City – Charged with rape, a man was arrested in Barangay Matab-ang, Talisay City, Negros Occidental.last_img

Most Interesting Biker – Miazil Jores

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first_imgLadies who ride custom and retro bikes whilst passionately indulging in the genre’s culture and lifestyle are rare. But that’s exactly what our friend and fellow biker Miazil Jores is.You may remember this French blonde bombshell as one of the winners of the recent Shell Advance #Advance2Langkawi roadtrip that we organised not too long ago.We recently took the time for a chat with Mia to find how she came to call Malaysia – or more specifically Johor Bahru – her home, and to find out how her love for custom bikes came about.About MiaBased out in the peninsula’s southern gateway city of Johor Bahru, Mia currently works as a freelance graphic designer and independent trader of sorts. She’s even dabbled as a model and commercial actress for a bit too.Mia astride a Royal Enfield Bullet 500 whilst riding across Indonesia recently.When she’s not working, Mia is more often seen riding out astride her beloved custom 1998 Harley-Davidson Sportster Rigid – the carburetted version.With nearly 25,000 followers on her Instagram page alone, it is no surprise to see Mia as one of the local custom bikes scene’s most prolific figures and influencers.Keep scrolling to know more on how Mia got into biking, and to know more about what makes this riding bombshell tick.Mia with her beloved custom 1998 H-D Sportster Rigid (carburettor).Tell us about how you found your ‘home’ here in Malaysia.It all began when my family first moved to Singapore when I was 9 years old. From there, we moved to Malaysia, and Taiwan as well for a few of years. I later returned alone to Singapore to complete my university studies, but I found myself back in Malaysia soon after. It is the place I felt more at home and my folks have moved to other countries since.How did the motorcycling bug bite you?I found my love for bikes through my godfather who took me for a ride around the neighbourhood on his motocrosss bike when I was about 7 years old. I grew up wanting to ride a KTM! Since then, I’ve always wanted to be that girl with her own ride! My mom was too worried about me being on a motocross bike at first, but I soon settled for a Yamaha scooter when I was 17 while we were living in Taiwan for a year. With the scooter, I rode from home to school daily and on the weekends through the Taiwanese mountains. It was here that I tasted the road, and there was no turning back from there – the ‘damage’ was done!Mia astride the Victory Vegas 8-Ball cruiser during the Shell Advance #Advance2Langkawi road trip held earlier this year.What got you into the custom and retro bikes scene?I’ve always been an artistic person myself, so when it comes to motorcycles, I naturally leaned into custom bikes. My riding passion deepened while was in the process of building my machine. I have so much admiration for all the talent, skills and art put into customising and building motorcycles.Each motorcycle is a work of art, so much knowledge goes into building parts, putting together a bike and making each and every machine unique. It’s a work of art in its own, and represents the vision of one or more people: the owner, the builder or both.If you think about all the parts needed to build a bike, you can imagine how much talent can be put together in the realisation of one bike: metalwork, leatherwork, body paint and embellishment made by pinstripe artists or hand lettering artists, wood makers, metal engraving, welders, machinists and not forgetting the mechanic that works on more often than not old engines. Think of a bike as a blank canvas, all you really need is the bare minimum and build around the motor.Riding such a bike, which is the laborious fruit from so much talent then becomes an honour. It’s also an expression of individuality. But I will also add that it is an addiction, as you are never truly done customising your motorcycles!Image credit: @zuaimyHow would you describe your style?It would be so hard to put me in one box! I’m a flexible rider and adapt depending on situation, mood, and the bike I am riding. I ride daily, so which makes my bike my main form of transportation. Its also a great way to wake myself up in the mornings and to de-stress in the evenings. I tend to “blow steam” a lot on the highways where I often go full throttle, racing my own shadow.But on weekends I love to travel the old roads and through ‘kampungs’. You could say that I’m much more of a relaxed cruiser rider. I often prefer travelling through these roads, and I have a passion for discovery. I love to get lost and imagine myself on a great adventure. I don’t mind going off road either so as long as the bike I’m riding can handle it.Mia riding a tricked-out custom Suzuki GSX400 in Indonesia recently (Photo credit: @varitamarezky).What was the most memorable riding experience you’ve had recently?I was riding off road in the mountains of Bandung in Indonesia just last month with the guys from Unionwell, Riders and Rules and Picker Store. It was such a beautiful sight, the kind that make you feel miserable for not having a GoPro to capture the views and trails!The best part was that I rode with 15 other bikers who ride bikes of all kinds ranging from motocross to custom scramblers, as well as vintage motorcycles plus a classic Harley-Davidson rigid. Despite the differences, we all managed to ride together and share this beautiful experience and had so much fun doing so.Photo credit: @varitamarezky.What’s on your motorcycling bucket list and how much of it have you completed?I have accomplished much more than I could dream of as a person who works practically every day. I’ve been lucky to find time or get sponsored to ride. I’ve travelled both solo and with friends to so many places in Malaysia and I am currently enjoying exploring my home state of Johor in greater depth. I’d love to go on a long riding trip across Indonesia. The scenery is breathtaking, not to mention the huge classic and custom bikes scene there that makes it even more interesting to ride from one end to the other. I’d also like to meet all these amazing talents, collectors and passionate enthusiasts.Also, I’ve never been to Kelantan, and somehow that bothers me a lot! I did plan a One Malaysia solo trip using old roads starting from the West coast coming down by East coast. I had to cancel this because of work, but that’s definitely one of my pending trips. I just wish to keep being on the road exploring until the day my son can ride with me. I guess I don’t have huge fancy dreams when it comes to riding. And owning a few custom and classic bikes of every kind, about 20, that’s not too much to ask for right?Mia enjoying a night ride astride a Yamaha SX650 (Photo Credit: @sam.bin). Is there something you’d like to say to all your fans and followers?Yes! For those who wish to ride, don’t choose your bike based on the type your friends are riding. For those already riding, just know that it’s ok to ride with your friends who ride totally different bikes as you do. I don’t see mixed groups often enough. I too, have my own group of friends who ride similar rigid bikes, but I often ride with other bikes. I’ve ridden my chopper with caferacers, vespas, superbikes, Japanese bikes and more. The most important thing is that the people you ride with enjoy the same things in riding as you do, the same roads as you do, the same scenery, the same mindset. And more often than not, they’ll make you ride much more enjoyable.So ride with everyone regardless of the make of their bikes, and support those in the scene based on their talents and not on their taste of bikes. Embrace the difference because at the end of the day, we all share the same passion for motorcycles, in our own way.Photo Credit: @sam.binYou can follow Mia on Instagram (@miazil) to see more of her exploits in the local custom and retro bikes scene.--Ads-- Photo Credit: @sam.bin She’s blonde, pretty and loves all things custom and retro. Get to know Miazil Jores in this edition of our Most Interesting Biker segment.last_img

Potensi Ekspor Ke AS, Operator Transportasi Chicago Tertarik dengan Kereta Produksi PT INKA

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first_imgKereta Buatan PT INKA untuk Bangladesh. Sumber: anekainfounik.files.wordpress.com Sebuah kabar gembira datang dari perkeretaapian Tanah Air. Setelah produsen kereta dalam negeri, PT INKA berhasil membuat perkeretaapian Bangladesh dan Filipina melirik dan meminang mahakaryanya beberapa waktu yang lalu, kini perusahaan yang berbasis di Madiun ini tengah menjajaki peluang dengan pihak asing lain yang juga tertarik dengan produksi BUMN ini.Baca Juga: PT INKA Raih Pesanan Kereta Rel Diesel Untuk Jaringan Metro ManilaSeperti yang diwartakan KabarPenumpang.com dari sejumlah laman sumber, Konsulat Jendral Republik Indonesia (KJRI) di Chicago, Amerika Serikat, Rosmalawati Chalid mengatakan bahwa pihak Chicago Transit Authority (CTA) mengaku tertarik dengan kereta buatan PT INKA. Terdapat peluang bagi Indonesia untuk memasarkan kereta penumpang ke Chicago Transit Authority (CTA),” kata Rosmalawati, dikutip dari laman antaranews.com (7/3/2018). Pernyataan tersebut dilontarkan Rosmalawati setelah dirinya melakukan pertemuan dengan sejumlah jajaran direksi dari CTA pada Senin (5/3/2018) kemarin. Dalam pertemuan tersebut, Rosmalawati mencatat beberapa poin penting yang diutarakan oleh pihak CTA, salah satunya adalah kebutuhan otoritas transportasi Chicago akan ratusan kereta penumpang baru dalam kurun waktu lima tahun kedepan.Nantinya, armada baru tersebut akan mengular di beberapa jalur perluasan di wilayah utara dan selata Chicago, dimana daerah-daerah tersebut kini sudah berkembang menjadi sentral bisnis dan pemukiman baru. Selain itu, pihak CTA juga ingin melakukan peremajaan terhadap sejumlah kereta penumpang yang rata-rata sudah beroperasi selama lebih dari 30 tahun. Dengan pernyataan yang dilontarkan oleh pihak CTA tersebut, Rosmalawati berharap bahwa armada buatan PT INKA dapat merangsek masuk ke pasar Amerika.“Saya harap gerbong buatan PT INKA dapat masuk pasar AS untuk memenuhi kebutuhan gerbong-gerbong baru dalam rangka modernisasi CTA,” tutur Rosmalawati. Ia pun optimis bahwa kereta buatan PT INKA dapat diterima di Amerika Serikat, mengingat track record menanjak PT INKA yang belakangan ini baru saja kebanjiran order dari Bangladesh dan Filipina. “Ratusan kereta penumpang buatan PT INKA baru saja diekspor ke Bangladesh,” imbuhnya.Meski CTA sudah terang-terangan menunjukkan ketertarikannya pada PT INKA, bukan berarti Indonesia dapat langsung bisa mengirim kereta api. Proses penjajakan kerja sama di AS harus melewati sejumlah proses terlebih dahulu, salah satunya adalah bidding.Baca Juga: PT INKA, Kepercayaan Dunia Dalam Industri Kereta di Dalam Negeri“Pemasaran kereta buatan Indonesia ke AS harus melalui proses bidding dan harus memenuhi spesifikasi yang ditentukan. Kereta penumpang yang dioperasikan di berbagai negara bagian di AS tidak memiliki standardisasi yang sama. Kereta yang beroperasi di Washington, D.C., Boston dan Chicago masing-masing memiliki spesifikasi ukuran tersendiri,” terang Rosmalawati.CTA sendiri merupakan perusahaan transportasi yang mengoperasikan sistem rapid transit yang dikenal sebagai the Chicago “L”. Sistem transportasi ini sendiri melayani kota Chicago dan sekitarnya.Share this:Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Like this:Like Loading... RelatedDari 438 Kereta Pesanan PT KAI, 288 Unit Telah Diserahkan oleh PT INKA21/01/2019In “Darat”PT INKA, Kepercayaan Dunia Dalam Industri Kereta di Dalam Negeri18/04/2017In “Domestik”Sepak Terjang PT INKA di Mancanegara yang Harumkan Nama Ibu Pertiwi28/05/2018In “Domestik”last_img